15 July 2021
Posteado en : Interview
We interview Dolores Moreno, a forensic pathologist and ICRIME project expert in the fight against organised crime in Central America
Dolores Moreno is a forensic pathologist and has been a member of the National Corps of Forensic Pathologists for over 25 years. She has been director of the National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences attached to the Ministry of Justice and has worked as a FIIAPP expert in Central America as a participant in the ICRIME project in its fight against organised crime.
What has been the greatest achievement of your experience as an expatriate expert?
ICRIME works with twelve forensic organisations in seven countries. After several visits and continuous contact with their workers, having the opportunity to get to know them, understand their needs and drafting the improvement proposals in keeping with project goals has, I think, been one of my greatest work-related achievements.
What are you most proud of?
Of having quickly adapted to the central American culture and of having developed a relationship of trust with the directors of forensic institutions in the region.
I am also proud of having been able to rally high-level experts from our ministries and involve them in our project.
How has your mission as an aid worker and at the same time a public official contributed to improving the lives of people and/or the planet?
Cooperation with the public institutions of these countries allows us to share knowledge and the experience acquired in our civil service. We collaborate in making these public institutions more effective and efficient. To do so, we apply management and quality criteria, working on professional training and technological improvement, which results in better service to the public, greater legal security and better management of public resources.
What is the main value of the public aspect for you?
Public Administrations don’t try to obtain the maximum profit from the services they provide. Consequently, the parameters to be taken into account when selecting a service will only be those of suitability and the achievement of the expected results. I think this is very important when providing basic services such as those related to security and justice.
This does not mean that a public service should not be efficient, on the contrary, public officials have become more committed to the administration of resources and are increasingly being trained in efficiency management, albeit never losing sight of social well-being and without putting citizens at risk.
What have you learned?
During this time I have had the opportunity to delve into how these organisations operate, which has allowed me to learn from their best practices in management, in the organisation of certain procedures and in the way to solve common problems.
I have also witnessed the commitment of the staff in these institutions who, despite cultural differences, share a vocation of public service with us.
18 March 2021
Posteado en : Opinion
Climate change has put three out of every ten households in Central America and the Caribbean at risk. Social vulnerability exacerbated by the effects of the pandemic must be added to this environmental vulnerability. Therefore, the implementation of comprehensive policies to reduce inequalities and alleviate poverty is a matter of urgency.
Individuals are affected differently by COVID-19. And it does not affect all territories to the same extent. Almost 60% of the population of Central America lives in urban areas, many of which are unplanned, according to UN-Habitat estimates. Neighbourhoods with high degrees of overcrowding and that are scattered, poorly connected and with hardly any services and infrastructures whose inhabitants have seen their vulnerability increased due to the pandemic. Specifically, the impact on informal settlements has been greater due to the inaccessibility of drinking water for proper sanitation, overcrowding in homes and the difficulty of access to health services. The pandemic has also had significant negative effects on the family economy since many people, mainly women, who live in settlements work informally. According to data from the International Labour Organization, 126 million women work informally in Latin America and the Caribbean. This represents almost 50% of the region’s female population.
“Since the pandemic began, the situation in the neighbourhood has been chaotic because we live very close to each other and up to 15 people live in very small houses. In my house, which has three rooms, there were three of us and now there are eight because my daughter and my grandchildren have had to come to live with us. I depend on a pension that the government gives me because of my disability, but it is very small”, Alicia Bremes explains to us from Pueblo Nuevo, a neighbourhood in the Pavas district of San José, Costa Rica. In August 2020, the districts of Pavas and Uruca together made up more than 15% of the entire country’s active COVID cases.
“How are we going to wash our hands if we don’t have access to water? Or how are we going to disinfect ourselves with gel if the price is so high?” laments Bremes, who has suffered the consequences of the pandemic at home. “One of my sons fixes cell phones and has been out of work for many months. I have another son with a disability who used to go to a psychiatric workshop every day and has suffered a lot because he no longer had anywhere to go. As he was nearly always out in the street, he caught COVID, suffered a very high temperature and had great difficulty in breathing, but recovered. But I have many neighbours, of all ages, who have passed away”, she says.
As Alicia Bremes explains, the situation in the poorer neighbourhoods is one of extreme vulnerability. “Many mothers in the neighbourhood had been working as cleaners in homes and were fired due to the pandemic. COVID has also reduced the street vending on which many families depend to be able to eat on a daily basis”, she says. Therefore, it is essential to focus on the needs of the most vulnerable groups and to try to cushion the effects of the pandemic that has quickly become a socio-economic as well as a health crisis.
In this context, the Council for Social Integration (CIS) asked the Secretariat for Central American Social Integration (SISCA), with the support of the Programme EUROsociAL+ of theEuropean Union, managed by FIIAPP, IILA and Expertise France, and in partnership with agencies and programmes of the United Nations, FAO, ILO and UN HABITAT, to prepare a “Recovery, Social Reconstruction and Resilience Plan for Central America and the Dominican Republic”. The Plan is a common regional roadmap and is made up of a series of strategic projects articulated around three axes of intervention: social protection, employment and sustainable urban development.
The Plan, which has been endorsed by the Councils of Ministers of Labour, Housing and Human Settlements of Central America and the Dominican Republic, focuses its efforts on reducing poverty and socio-spatial inequality, the most obvious territorial expression of which are the informal settlements, which are estimated to make up 29% of the Central American urban population. Despite national efforts over the last 15 years to reduce the population living in informal settlements, many people continue to live in this situation. In addition, there are risks derived from climate change, which exposes a growing number of inhabitants to the effects of extreme weather events such as hurricanes or landslides.
There is an urgent need to broaden our view and think of the neighbourhood as the environment that enables us to implement basic rights within the city, for which we will have to attend not only to the provision of housing, but also to ensure that these houses have the necessary infrastructures, services and facilities.
There are still many challenges ahead in order to turn the face of poverty and inequality into one of progress without leaving anyone behind. For this reason, additional financial resources must be urgently found for the implementation of the Recovery, Social Reconstruction and Resilience Plan, an instrument that will mitigate the effects of the pandemic and shape societies that are more resilient, socially more just and egalitarian and environmentally more sustainable.
Cristina Fernández, Senior Town Planning Architect of EUROsociAL+ and collaborator with Fundemuca