14 January 2021
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Entrevistamos a Fernando de la Cruz, técnico de gobernanza democrática del programa EUROsociAL +, en la FIIAPP. En ella, se que apuntan algunas claves relativas a las finanzas públicas para una salida de la crisis inclusiva, que no deje a nadie atrás
La política fiscal es un instrumento privilegiado para la reducción de las desigualdades, y, por ello, es clave para un programa como EUROsociAL+, que promueve la cohesión social en América Latina. El área de finanzas públicas del Programa de la Unión Europea ha participado en el Laboratorio de Finanzas Públicas organizado por AECID.
¿En qué consiste el Laboratorio de Finanzas Públicas organizado por AECID en el que ha participado EUROsociAL y por qué se pone en marcha en este momento?
La economista jefe del Fondo Monetario Internacional, Gita Gopinath, ha señalado que, tras el impacto de la COVID, el mundo se enfrenta a una trampa de liquidez global que obliga a un uso decidido y contundente de la política fiscal y especialmente del gasto público para evitar los peligrosos efectos que podría tener la cronificación de esta situación en el largo plazo.
Uno de los primeros en entender esta situación fue la Comisión Europea, que lanzó hace meses su plan de gasto público masivo denominado Next Generation EU con el objetivo de reactivar el espacio económico europeo.
Ante esta coyuntura el Centro de Formación de la Cooperación Española – CFCE en Montevideo, a través de la plataforma INTERCOONECTA de AECID, ha organizado el “Laboratorio sobre Gasto Público en el contexto del COVID-19” en el que participa el programa EUROsociAL+ de la Unión Europea junto con otras instituciones como la OCDE, CEPAL, el BID y el IEF, Instituto de Estudios Fiscales dependiente del Ministerio de Hacienda del Gobierno de España y entidad aliada del Programa.
Este laboratorio se enmarca en la estrategia de respuesta conjunta de la cooperación española frente a la COVID y buscan, a través del intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias, contribuir a la mejora de la eficiencia y eficacia de las políticas fiscales para lograr la armonización de los recursos domésticos y atender las demandas de la ciudadanía sin dejar a nadie atrás
¿Qué recomendaciones y lecciones aprendidas en el ámbito del gasto público ha recogido el programa EUROsociAL que sean de vital trascendencia para América Latina?
Primero, es importante señalar que el gasto público debe aumentar de forma significativa a nivel global. Tras una década de intervencionismo monetario, por parte de los principales bancos centrales del mundo, el impacto de la COVID ha obligado a una mayor laxitud y expansión monetaria (el 90% de los países desarrollados tienen sus tipos de interés por debajo del 1%, un 60% en el caso de los países emergentes).
Esta situación ha dejado a los bancos centrales con un escaso margen de maniobra y obliga a que la política fiscal sea la palanca que reactive la economía global. En este contexto, el grueso de organismos financieros internacionales está recomendando un aumento significativo del gasto público financiado por una deuda barata, el aumento de los déficits públicos y la aplicación de impuestos selectivos a los sectores que mejor han capeado la crisis. Un entorno como el actual, de bajos tipos de interés y crecientes multiplicadores fiscales, favorece una expansión del gasto público sostenible de cara a evitar un “estancamiento secular”, es decir, un persistente bajo crecimiento económico, que podría durar décadas.
¿Cómo hacer el gasto público sea más eficaz? ¿En qué sectores debería focalizarse?
Es necesario que el aumento del gasto público se oriente de forma eficaz hacia aquellos sectores con un mayor impacto en la reactivación económica y de promoción de la cohesión social.
En una primera instancia, parece imprescindible que parte de este aumento del gasto público se destine al sector sanitario para reforzar la capacidad pública para enfrentar y limitar los estragos generados por el coronavirus.
De forma complementaria, en esta primera fase los estabilizadores automáticos han ejercido la función contra cíclica, sin embargo, no está resultando suficiente. Es necesario, por tanto, aumentar la inversión pública en aquellos sectores con mayores multiplicadores fiscales. Existe cierto consenso en que estos sectores son los relacionados con las infraestructuras productivas, las diferentes esferas del capital humano (educación, I+D, protección social) y las reformas que mejoren la calidad institucional.
Por último, esta expansión debe tener como objetivo corregir las desigualdades, ya presentes en América Latina, que la crisis de la COVID ha exacerbado aún más. Además, estas políticas redistributivas ahondarán en un mayor crecimiento económico.
¿Por qué es importante fortalecer las capacidades públicas para mejorar la calidad del gasto? ¿Cómo lo están realizando en la práctica desde el programa EUROsociAL?
Porque un aumento de gasto público no puede llevarse a cabo de forma eficaz si las capacidades públicas no son reforzadas. Cuando las instituciones no se refuerzan y deben aumentar su ejecución presupuestaria pueden aparecer fenómenos de ineficiencia, mala asignación y corrupción.
Para evitar estas situaciones es necesario reforzar las capacidades públicas en diversos ámbitos, como el normativo, los recursos humanos, la financiación, la formación y los incentivos, entre otros. Además, es necesario establecer un marco claro de trasparencia en la gestión y de rendición de cuentas sobre los resultados alcanzados, de manera que la ciudadanía refuerce su confianza en las instituciones y en su legitimidad para el manejo de estos recursos.
En este sentido, desde EUROsociAL+, en particular desde la línea de finanzas públicas, estamos tratando de poner en práctica políticas fiscales orientadas a la reactivación económica y el fomento de la cohesión social.
Para ello, estamos apoyando al Estado de Guanajuato de México para diseñar una nueva política social que permita aumentar el gasto social y reducir así los niveles de pobreza y desigualdad de la región.
En el ámbito de la eficacia del gasto estamos apoyando en materia de “evaluación del gasto público” y “de transversalización del enfoque de género en los programas presupuestales por resultados” en países como Paraguay, Argentina, Brasil y la región centroamericana.
Finalmente, en lo referente al refuerzo de las capacidades estatales, toda el área de gobernanza de EUROsociAL+ trabaja en el fortalecimiento de las capacidades institucionales en ámbitos como la justicia, el desarrollo territorial y el buen gobierno.
10 December 2020
In this interview, Diego Herrero de Egaña tells how, during his time in Turkey, he has coordinated the twinning project for the training of fish producers financed by the European Union and managed by the FIIAPP.
What has your adaptation to the country been like?
I arrived in Turkey in April 2019 and the adaptation was relatively simple as it is a country with great similarities to Spain, from its climate to the kindness and hospitality of Turkish people. Everything has been very familiar. Turkey is a very easy country to live in and which Spanish people find easy to adapt to.
What have been the easiest and the most difficult things to adapt to?
The most difficult aspect in my case is being away from my family; however, apart from that, I have to say again that Turkey is an easy country for us, it’s not hard to get used to living here.
The easiest part is that it is a wonderful and truly beautiful country, with a rich Graeco-Latin and European culture. Together with the reception we have received throughout the country and the courtesy of its people, this makes visiting Turkey and getting to know the place a joy for anyone.
Is this your first experience of living outside Spain? If not, is this mission proving to be very different to previous times?
This is not my first experience outside of Spain, as more than half of my working life has been abroad, unfortunately. Where you are based plays a major part when making comparisons, as do your personal circumstances.
The main problem that a Spaniard might encounter Turkey could well be the distance from Spain, because in every other aspect you feel completely at home. The truth is that it is very different from my other experiences, but more than anything else, this is due to it being a very easy country to live in. In other places where I have lived, this was not quite as clear.
There is also a factor that has changed everything – SARS COV 2 that has affected all of us everywhere, our way of life, which has had a great influence on work in terms of the progress we have made with the project, as well as on the personnel side, since the fact we do not go to the ministry every day affects the constancy of relationships.
What are your work and your daily routine like? Is it very different from the routine you had in Spain?
With the onset of the virus, everything has changed everywhere. I now see my previous way of life as very removed from the present. It was very simple and straightforward, since it basically consisted of going to the Ministry of Agriculture and organising the project’s scheduled activities and actions in association with the Turkish ministry.
Due to the special circumstances of this project regarding fisheries, I often have to travel along the Turkish coast, something I did not do in Spain. Throughout this project however we have carried out activities along the entire Turkish coast in various stages, holding two meetings a day in different places over the course of a week. It is like a group going on tour, covering thousands of kilometres in a minibus with a very tight schedule.
How is your relationship with the FIIAPP team in Madrid and your colleagues in Turkey?
I am fortunate to be able to say that it is very good. I have worked with very professional technicians all of whom have extensive experience. In such a complicated project, with the added complications of COVID-19, that is something that is very much appreciated. I also believe that I have a good relationship with the other FIIAPP technicians and the rest of the team.
How would you rate your experience of working abroad for FIIAPP?
Very positively. I think that working outside your country with people from a different culture is always a challenge, but it is also highly rewarding.
With experience, you also come to understand that even with all the strengths that such a project has, you will still always be an outsider in another administration. You also have to ask for a lot of things and that obviously, creates tension that you have to learn to deal with.
Do you have any stories that sum up your time in Turkey and how you have adapted?
There are always lots of anecdotes to tell when you come to live in another country because almost everything catches your attention. Generally speaking, something that you do notice in Ankara is the honesty of the people here. It is inconceivable that a taxi driver would try to con you, or if you leave your phone or wallet in a cafeteria they will always keep it and give it back without having touched it, which is incredible.
Regarding the world of work and the administration, the arrangement of the chairs in the offices is curious because first they are distributed to accommodate many people. What’s more, they are not arranged to face a visitor head-on but rather from the side.
13 August 2020
El coordinador del proyecto de cooperación europeo de competencia en Albania nos cuenta cómo han sido los últimos meses de trabajo en plena crisis sanitaria
Alberto Herrera, coordinator of the Twinning cooperation project financed by the EU “Strengthening of the competition authority in Albania”, shares his view from this country on the current context caused by COVID19. He tells us how the project has managed to rapidly adapt the training and activities to the new situation, without sacrificing the results. He also talks about the importance of monitoring competition in the midst of a health crisis and cooperation as the cornerstone to promote exchange between specialists.
What is the project about and what difficulties have arisen with the pandemic?
The project that I coordinate is a Twinning project funded by the European Union and carried out by the National Commission for Markets and Competition (CNMC) and the FIIAPP. The aim of the project is to ensure the protection of free competition in Albania through training activities between Spanish experts and their Albanian counterparts, which until the pandemic began required the presence of Spanish experts in the country.
The COVID19 outbreak and the resulting social distancing and confinement measures imposed both in Spain and Albania caught us totally off guard, I suppose like everyone else. This meant that planned activities had to be cancelled, as the experts were unable to travel from Spain, which plunged us into great initial uncertainty.
However, this did not result in a shutdown of our office in Albania’s activities, from where, from the outset and working from home , we focused our efforts on analysing the most appropriate strategies to ensure the continuity and achievement of project goals, coordination between all parties for an adequate design and re-planning of activities and the reconsideration of the communication strategy.
What security measures were established in Albania? How has the project work been adapted to the situation?
In Albania, measures were taken similar to those in the different neighbouring
countries and in the states of the European Union: confinement of the population, curfews at certain times of the day, closure of land borders, interruption of regular air and sea passenger transport services, suspension of activities for a large part of the public and private sector institutions and the closure of sports, cultural and leisure facilities.
However, once the situation in Albania improved, with the return to office work in mid-April, the project decided on how to resume activities with the aim of achieving the same results as those obtained face-to-face.
Based on this condition, as well as taking into account the preferences and needs of our beneficiary, from the project we suggested the possibility to institutions of going beyond the on-line teaching of master classes and organising e-learning in a form similar to those used by many universities and companies.
Finally, the chosen platform was Moodle, made available by the FIIAPP and which allows the development of interactive training from the didactic materials prepared by the CNMC experts.
Has the pandemic affected the subject on which the project is working?
Since the start of this crisis, the main goal of the European Commission and the Competition Authorities of the Member States, such as the National Commission on Markets and Competition (CNMC) in Spain, has been to ensure that essential products to protect consumer health against the virus, such as masks and gels disinfectants, should continue to be available at competitive prices.
Investigations aimed at discovering and sanctioning anti-competitive agreements between operators or abuses by companies with a dominant position in sectors sensitive to the health crisis have become a priority for the Competition Authorities in our surroundings, and in Albania too.
In line with these objectives, and with the purpose of contributing to the fight against the pandemic in Albania within the scope of our project, we launched an interesting initiative that has allowed us to deepen the collaboration given to our beneficiary.
This consisted of the CNMC making non-confidential information available to the Albanian Competition Authority regarding the actions and investigations carried out by the it with the aim of protecting consumers. One example was the launch of a mailbox to centralise complaints and queries related to the application of competition rules in the context of COVID19 or the initiation of investigations in the markets producing and distributing health care or funeral services.
Why is it important, at a difficult time like this, that cooperation should not stop?
In these difficult times in which the notions or values of transnationality and universal citizenship are being questioned, cooperation between countries becomes even more meaningful – the exchange of experiences, technical and managerial knowledge established within the framework of technical cooperation projects like ours works both ways. Both ways because it not only works in favour of the beneficiary country, but is also enriching for the implementing country. Therefore, in adverse circumstances, international cooperation offers a unique chance to exchange solutions to problems that affect us all.
What is the current situation in Albania? And that of the project?
Although there were infections, the effects of the disease in Albania were less widespread than those of Western Europe. The country has worked to reactivate its activity and economy, and the measures taken have been gradually lifted, but naturally with the adoption of the necessary precautions.
Regarding the project, the parties involved have agreed on a two-month extension, which is approximately the time for which the activities have been suspended, to allow the completion of what had been planned.
How has the relationship with the FIIAPP been at this difficult time?
Since the beginning of this crisis, there has been constant concern and coordination from the FIIAPP, firstly, to guarantee the safety of those of us abroad and secondly to ensure the continuity of the projects, given the importance of cooperation for the parties involved, as I have said before.
Once the parties to the project agreed on the resumption of on-line activities, the support of the FIIAPP, by making the Moodle platform available to the project, was decisive to guarantee optimal results, as well as the technical support and collaboration of the Department of Knowledge Management responsible for it.
The commencement of activities in e-learning format would certainly not have been possible without the support and intervention of Knowledge Management, which loaded the didactic content onto the platform.
Despite everything negative that the pandemic has brought, is there anything positive that you can draw from the situation?
Unfortunately, I feel unable to draw any positive consequences from the whole situation. Perhaps, after a time and with some hindsight, it might be possible to make a constructive reflection on all this, not limited to the repetition of clichés and stock phrases.
I personally believe that this health crisis has placed us in a very complicated situation, with a scope and consequences as yet unseen. Not only has it caused the pain of all those who have lost a loved one, but it has also deprived many people of their livelihood, putting them in a situation of economic and labour uncertainty and precariousness.
For long periods of time, a large part of the population has been subject to great pressure and stress as a consequence of the confinement and social distancing measures taken by different governments, with subsequent harm to physical and mental health.
Neither should we sight of the curtailment suffered by principles, values and rights that we believed unquestionable in democratic societies. For example, the rights of assembly and freedom of movement, among others. I am sorry I cannot offer a more positive view, but as of today, I do not believe that these events will contribute to improving our world or making us better people.
23 July 2020
“Niger, with its diverse culture and ethnicity, is a country of opportunities"Fernando Guerrero in FIIAPP's office
“Niger, with its diverse culture and ethnicity, is a country of opportunities”
Fernando Guerrero, a commissioner with the Spanish Police and head of mission, tells us about his experience as a FIIAPP expatriate with the ECI Niger project. This project is funded by the European Union through the Emergency Trust Fund for Africa and managed by FIIAPP. It fights criminal illegal immigration and human trafficking networks in Niger.
What was it like when you arrived in Niger? Do you have any anecdotes about that time?
I arrived at dawn in Niamey in September 2018. It was my first time in the Sahel. We had hardly had any sleep, the next morning, we went to the city centre accompanied with the coordinator. The colours, smells, landscape, the hubbub of the market, the crowds of people, the heat, and the extreme poverty… everything vied for my attention and left me a memory firmly engraved in my memory that I will never forget. As an anecdote, I remember that on the first day I noticed how local food products such as moringa with peanut paste were made and sold in the market. This seemed strange to me to start with but now they are a staple part of my diet.
And the adaptation period? What were the most and least difficult things for you?
In my opinion, if you are aware of the country you are going to and are willing to immerse yourself in the local culture, it’s much easier to adapt. Niger, with its varied culture and ethnicity, is a land of opportunities.
Some customs are strange to me, like polygamy and its rules. Also, the fact that much of the population, due to historical and social circumstances, and beyond the begging you might expect, see white people as the solution to all their problems and do not hesitate to ask for financial help at all times, even when they don’t know you at all.
Treating local people decently makes it easier to integrate. People welcome you into their homes with kindness, so you can get to know how they live.
Is this your first experience of living outside Spain? Is it proving to be very different from your previous ones? How long have you been there and how much time do you have left?
Yes, this is the first time I’ve lived away from Spain on a continuous basis. Most of the time I had spent abroad before this was in Eastern Europe. I arrived in Niger on 21 September 2018 and I’m scheduled to leave in December 2022.
What is your work like, your daily routine? Is it very different from the routine you had in Spain?
ECI Niger is a unique project, in the sense that it is a mission with an operational police component. We experts are part of the structure of the Nigerian National Police. We participate with them in operations and advise them on everything to do with police operations. We also deal with different local authorities, with the European Union Delegation; with embassies, with other projects and missions to achieve better coordination, and, of course, with FIIAPP, our operator.
The routine is different from the one I had in Spain. One component that is always important, but which is an essential priority here is diplomacy. My experience during my career in the police force is something I share with my teammates and it is essential to the success of the project. Local authorities value that experience and may feel offended if the expert lacks it.
How are relations with the FIIAPP?
We have an outstanding relationship. I have great appreciation for FIIAPP’s efforts to manage a pioneering operational police project. I also value the understanding that our coordination team shows with the daily difficulties that we professionals who are “in the field” have.
How would you rate your experience of working as a FIIAPP expatriate?
My personal and professional experience in Niger is priceless. I am fortunate to have an excellent team of professionals and people. Having worked with the National Police since 1994, working with FIIAPP professionals gives me a new point of view that enables me to grow professionally.